The Whole History of the Earth and Life

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more than 4.5 billion years ago the
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Milky Way galaxy collided with a nearby
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dwarf galaxy this encounter hastened the
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formation of stars our solar system is a
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part of the Milky Way galaxy within the
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solar system material circulation had
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been progressing
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the water component from the outer
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region evaporated to make materials try
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through this process particles were
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zonally distributed depending on their
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water content the bipolar flow stopped
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and with it material circulation some
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regions around the Sun with high
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particle density appeared within these
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regions collisions frequently occurred
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small particles gradually grew to become
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planetesimals
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planetesimals continued colliding with
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smaller particles and other
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planetesimals eventually growing to
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planets such as the earth
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a number of planets were moving in the
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same orbit
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the early Earth collided with a smaller
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mars-sized planet
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debris from this impact eventually came
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to form our moon
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the earth-moon system as we know it
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today was in place
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the early dry earth had neither an
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atmosphere nor an ocean countless
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planetesimals and icy planets of barded
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the earth over a period of 200 million
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years
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an ocean atmosphere system is being
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formed from carbon hydrogen oxygen and
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nitrogen contained in planetesimals at
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that time the ocean was still toxic with
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high salinity and an overabundance of
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heavy metals it was too toxic to support
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life
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asteroids that reached a diameter of
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1,000 kilometers
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flew into the earth on impact both the
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crust and asteroids became plasma in an
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instant the surface was covered with
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magma in the center of the crater a
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basaltic central cone formed this
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creates an up flow in the mantle as the
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magma cooled and solidified a basaltic
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crust thinner than the continental crust
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formed this is called oceanic crust
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[Music]
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surface water flowed into the giant
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crater forming small puddles that turned
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into one large ocean the subsequent
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rising mantle created a breach in the
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oceanic crust and formed a ridge
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uplift of the plate by mantle convection
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caused horizontal slippage due to the
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weight of the plate this is plate
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tectonics in action
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the oceanic plate subducting under the
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lighter continental plate
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weathered sediments neutralized the
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ultra acidic ocean
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heavy metals settled out and became
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fixed as deposits at the mid-oceanic
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ridge these deposits were transported
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through plate tectonics into the deep
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mantle gradually the ocean became a
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habitable environment
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since 4.2 billion years ago a liquid
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core has formed in the center of the
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earth convection within the liquid core
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created a strong magnetic field
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surrounding the earth this geomagnetic
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field shields the Earth’s surface from
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solar winds and cosmic rays the Earth’s
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surface was nearing readiness for life
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[Music]
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the early Earth when the atmosphere
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prevented sunlight from reaching the
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surface primitive life was about to
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emerge underground in the cave of a
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geyser
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[Music]
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uranium ore emitted large amounts of
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radiation creating a diverse range of
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materials and eventually producing the
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early building blocks of life water
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boiled and rose up to the surface and
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the surface water flowed back down into
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the natural nuclear reactor the
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temperature of the geyser water remained
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below 100 degrees
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protecting the newly formed biomolecules
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the underground environment was
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reductive while the surface environment
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oxidizing these conditions were
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necessary to synthesize biomolecules
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[Music]
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in the earth hidden eeeh tidal forces
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were much more pronounced than they are
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today
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even Lakes had significant urban flow of
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water creating wet and dry cycles these
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wet and dry cycles were one of the most
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crucial factors in producing the
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building blocks of life
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[Music]
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fatty acids came together encasing the
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proto life molecules
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polymerization progressed under the wet
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and dry cycles eventually protein like
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basic materials that could act as
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catalysts were produced these molecules
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circulated between the geyser cave and
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the surface environment the interactions
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of these materials led to more complex
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biomolecules proto RNA combined with
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enzyme like basic materials and evolved
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into ribozymes which had the ability to
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replicate themselves
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this laid the groundwork for life to
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reproduce finally these molecules were
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enclosed within lipid membranes forming
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primitive proto cellular life
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this was the beginning of life
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[Music]
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the Earth’s plate tectonics which had
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begun with the creation of its ocean
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eventually destroyed its primordial
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continent and subsumed it to the deep
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mantle by four billion years ago the
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mother continent had disappeared leaving
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life on the margins of a fragmented
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landmass
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[Music]
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inside the earth a dramatic change was
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about to begin
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the subducted primordial continent
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descended toward the core-mantle
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boundary
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the wealth of radioactive elements in
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the primordial continent caused the
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uppermost part of the core to melt
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by 4.2 billion years ago the
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newly-created liquid outer core was
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strengthening the Earth’s magnetic field
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protecting the surface environment
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against solar winds and cosmic rays as a
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result life could exist on the surface
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environment
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[Music]
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the supply of energy and nutrients
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through material circulation is
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necessary for life the essential
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mechanism to maintain life is an endless
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flow of electrons the first pro to life
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couldn’t survive very far from the
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nuclear geyser due to insufficient
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energy
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mutations however allowed life to evolve
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[Music]
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the more resilient life-forms were able
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to adapt and survive in harsh
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environments
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this second stage of proto life evolved
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to make use of the sunlight available on
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the Earth’s surface
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they developed metabolism that converted
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light energy into electrochemical energy
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moreover they used sugars to store
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energy for the sunless night hours
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the source of energy for life on earth
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shifted from nuclear geysers to the Sun
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around 4.1 billion years ago the ocean
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was still extremely toxic killing off
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most of the proto life-forms within it
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nevertheless some proto life-forms
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survived the extreme environment
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they developed protective mechanisms to
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prevent the metallic ions in the ocean
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water from entering their protocells
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[Music]
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this proto life began coalescing into
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larger and more complex forms
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[Music]
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modern life-forms use only twenty kinds
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of amino acids this means our ancestors
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that used the same amino acids were the
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ones that survived the mass extinction
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[Music]
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evolution walks a perilous tightrope
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between continuing and ending unstable
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RNA evolved through ionizing radiation
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into more durable DNA making it possible
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to reliably pass information across
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generations
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and the third stage of proto life was
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born this was the beginning of
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prokaryotic organisms the ancestors of
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today’s archaea and bacteria
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[Music]
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oxygen when unbound to any other
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material can be toxic to life because
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oxygen destroys the reductive life body
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therefore the first photosynthetic
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organisms would have been anaerobic
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microbes which produced no oxygen life
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however adapted taking advantage of
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oxygen as a valuable source of
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additional energy this development
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resulted in the appearance of
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cyanobacteria
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cyanobacteria produced oxygen which
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crystallized into felsic iron-bearing
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oxide reducing the iron content of the
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ocean still the ocean was five times as
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saline as it is today as the Earth’s
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interior cooled old slabs of the
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primordial crust resting at the bottom
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of the upper mantle fell into the lower
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mantle
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meanwhile numerous mantle plumes
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ascended from the lower mantle into the
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upper mantle this phenomenon is known as
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mantle overturn mantle plumes pushed the
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basaltic crust upward generating
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landmass
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this created shallow marine environments
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penetrated by sunlight which allowed the
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cyanobacteria to flourish
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the oxygen produced by the cyanobacteria
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gradually altered the Earth’s atmosphere
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[Music]
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on the ocean floor ferric and ferrous
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iron were accumulating in the form of
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hematite and magnetite creating a
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massive banded iron formation by 2.5
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billion years ago the remaining banded
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iron formation was a few kilometers
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thick
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this rapid decrease in iron content
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changed the color of the ocean to a
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familiar blue life began to change the
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surface environment such is the
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coevolution of the earth and its
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inhabitants
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this was an important step in life on
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Earth’s long journey toward civilization
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a collision between the Milky Way and a
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nearby dwarf galaxy produced countless
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glowing stars within a few thousand
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years some of these stars ended in
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supernova explosions a myriad of cosmic
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rays from the supernova deteriorated the
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sun’s heliosphere and bombarded the
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earth
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these cosmic rays help generate cloud
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condensation nuclei which produced more
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and more clouds until the earth was
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completely blanketed with them the thick
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cloud cover prevented sunlight from
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reaching the surface of the earth the
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earth underwent a global glaciation
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event known as the snowball earth this
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caused another global mass extinction
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[Music]
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but once again some life survived yet
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another difficult period beneath the ice
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sheet tiny life was protected by the
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Earth’s massive circulating system
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[Music]
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and the earth is similarly held in place
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by the solar system and the expansive
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universe life is but one part of an
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enormous system
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the prokaryotes survived the snowball
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earth evolving into more complex life
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such as endosymbiotic systems living
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together inside cells they formed
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mitochondria and chloroplasts which
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allowed them to get more energy from
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oxygen
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a single prokaryote body could contain
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thousands of mitochondria
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[Music]
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a nuclear membrane formed protecting DNA
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from the oxygen dense ocean water
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DNA strands grew longer retaining ever
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more genetic information life evolved
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into more diverse and complex organisms
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at long last the eukaryotes appeared the
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eukaryotes grew a million times larger
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than the prokaryotes
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in theory everything inevitably falls
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into disorder
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[Music]
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and yet life is orderly and increasingly
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complex life seems to continue evolving
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undeterred by universal entropy
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[Music]
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[Music]
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plate tectonics caused small developing
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continents to assemble into a single
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supercontinent called nuna as nuna
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formed its burgeoning landmass provided
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cyanobacteria with an expanding habitat
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in its lakes rivers wetlands and
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estuaries cyanobacteria produces free
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oxygen through photosynthesis at that
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time however most of the free oxygen
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produced was consumed in decomposing
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dead cyanobacteria so very little free
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oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere on
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land however dead cyanobacteria got
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buried under sediments
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so oxygen that would have broken down
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their bodies instead ended up in the
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atmosphere the presence of a large
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landmass helped increase the amount of
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oxygen in the atmosphere as the total
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land area on the surface of the earth
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increased so too did atmospheric oxygen
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levels dramatically
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[Music]
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over time the nuna supercontinent broke
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up into smaller continents
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but once again plate techtonics
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reassembled a supercontinent this one
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called Rodinia in equator region slabs
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of oceanic plates subducted under
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continental plates gradually accumulated
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in the mantle transition zone eventually
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these slabs fell down into the core the
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slabs cooled the outer core changing the
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flow of electricity within as a result
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the cores dipole magnetic fields
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transformed into a weaker quadrupole
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magnetic field the Milky Way galaxy
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collided with a dwarf galaxy and
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underwent to transition into starburst
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conditions over time these newly
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produced stars ended in supernova
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explosions bombarding the earth with
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cosmic rays the earth with its weak
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quadrupole magnetic field was heavily
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affected clouds covered the entire earth
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and ice covered its surface a series of
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supernova explosions occurred long
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periods of extreme heat were punctuated
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by shorter periods of extreme cold in
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the extremely cold periods oxygen in the
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atmosphere fell to Archaean Eon levels
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causing mass extinctions
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these mass extinctions however created
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great opportunities for life to evolve
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into something completely new repeated
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in fluxes of cosmic rays and drastic
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fluctuations in oxygen levels these
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environmental changes caused genetic
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mutations that accelerated the
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appearance of new species
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[Music]
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the starburst period ended and the
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Earth’s core reverted to a stronger
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dipole magnetic field ongoing
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photosynthesis returned the oxygen in
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the atmosphere to previous levels
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meanwhile the Inner Earth was gradually
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cooling down when the Inner Earth is hot
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enough the components of water trapped
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in minerals in the oceanic plates are
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released to the surface environment and
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the sea water level is unaffected
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[Music]
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however once the mantle temperature
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drops below 650 degrees Celsius minerals
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carry these water components down into
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the upper mantle
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meanwhile on the surface deprived of the
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components of water sea levels gradually
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decrease this is known as the leaking
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earth phenomena which is inevitable on a
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cooling planet this leaking effect moved
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3% of all sea water into the deeper
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mantle sea level dropped by 600 metres
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as a result surface land areas grew as
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did continental shelf areas receiving
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sunlight a habitat for future life on
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earth was being created rivers carried
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nutrients from the inlands down to the
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continental shelves and the additional
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landmass significantly accelerated the
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build-up of oxygen in the atmosphere
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these processes set the stage for an
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explosive evolution of life-forms
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[Music]
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[Music]
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extreme climate changes continued
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putting life on a path to new
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evolutional stages for survival life
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evolved with prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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living together as ever larger symbiotic
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organisms compensating for each other’s
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shortcomings and thriving as a whole
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this greatly expanded the possibilities
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for forms of life
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[Music]
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life forms grew to 1 million times the
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size of eukaryotes and 1 trillion times
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the size of prokaryotes the appearance
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of multicellular life was a critical
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leap for evolution
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[Music]
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another glaciation period came and life
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suffered a mass extinction with time
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this glaciation also passed and the
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global climate gradually warmed
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phosphorus and other materials essential
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for life circulated through the climate
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system and accumulated in the oceans the
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animals of the Ediacaran period appeared
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at this time dick and Sonia are iconic
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among the Ediacaran fauna
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some grew to over 1 metre in length they
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were soft bodied creatures with no shell
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or skeleton
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[Music]
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they probably lived in warm shallow
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marine environments around the Rodinia
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supercontinent
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[Music]
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the supply of nutrients from the land
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was ever-increasing as was atmospheric
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oxygen the amount of ferrous iron in the
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oceans increased the ferrous iron
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oxidized once again creating large bands
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of iron phosphorus and calcium levels in
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the ocean increased life evolved to use
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these elements becoming animals with
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bones and shells for example the calcium
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helped protect micro dikteon from other
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animals their bodies used calcium to
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form a covering of hard scales life
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evolves to survive making use of the
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elements in its environment and the
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Earth’s environment alters the shapes of
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life
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[Music]
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the earth entered another period of
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climactic instability the earth
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alternated between periods of extreme
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heat and extreme cold for tens of
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millions of years these severe changes
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killed off the Ediacaran fauna
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nevertheless new species were about to
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appear radiation from inside the earth
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plays a significant role in the
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evolution of life
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a continental rift is a place where a
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continent breaks open to expose erupting
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magma and radioactive elements radiation
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hastens the creation of new species and
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new branches in the Tree of Life
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this is stem evolution creating new
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species at continental rifts
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life evolved separately on each small
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continent when small continents
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recombined their life forms crossbred
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[Music]
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different crossbreeding ‘he’s created
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new forms of life variation thrived
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this is crown evolution continental
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collisions created more diverse surface
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environments bays and gulfs on large
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continents were especially well supplied
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with nutrients from upstream making use
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of these nutrients Cambrian era
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life-forms diversified much more quickly
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[Music]
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the Cambrian explosion created some 35
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new phyla
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these phyla became the foundation for
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the types of plants and animals we see
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today
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[Music]
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there are three main ways that life
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evolved mass extinctions that eradicated
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many species stem evolution that
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hastened genetic mutations when
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continents broke apart and crown
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evolution that hastened bio
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diversification when continents collided
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so the evolution of life is inextricably
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linked to environmental changes due to
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universal factors and continents
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assembling together and breaking apart
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[Music]
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the ocean was more than five times as
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saline as it is today 600 million years
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ago the ocean gradually became less
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salty salt from seawater was relocated
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to the land in the form of rock salt
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decreasing sea levels made this possible
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through more exposed land even if
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seawater rose again high enough to
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reclaim the rock salt most of it had
38:02
become inaccessible encased in sediments
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the decrease in seawater salinity made
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the ocean more hospitable to diverse
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life-forms estuaries and open seas
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welcomed new life with increasing
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atmospheric oxygen levels an ozone layer
38:23
formed in the Earth’s upper atmosphere
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the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet
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radiation from the Sun the land was
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becoming a more habitable environment
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[Music]
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Algie was the first life-form to
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transition out of the water onto the
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challenging land environment
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this is why algae evolved before animals
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did
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when insects appeared they co-evolved
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together with plants
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appearing during the Cambrian explosion
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fish were the first of the vertebrates
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animals with backbones fish are the
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oldest vertebrate ancestors of us humans
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as fish continued to evolve xeo Steger
39:41
appeared the ancestor of amphibians
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[Music]
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plants flourished producing free oxygen
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through photosynthesis providing the
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atmosphere with 1.5 times as much oxygen
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as it has today
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long after the remains of these plants
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would become sedimentary coal that coal
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would help fuel the remarkable
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breakthroughs for human civilization
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that started with the Industrial
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Revolution
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[Music]
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next vertebrates equipped with lungs
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appeared and made their way onto land
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[Music]
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the tree of life evolved branching from
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fish to amphibians to reptiles and then
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dinosaurs and mammals and eventually to
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humans this guy hasn’t found out about
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all that just yet
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[Music]
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[Music]
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the solar system collided with the Dark
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Nebula as the solar system passed
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through the nebula the earth was
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bombarded with cosmic rays
41:55
the earth entered yet another frozen age
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plants were affected first dramatically
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reducing the oxygen they supplied to the
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atmosphere the surface environment
42:07
reverted to an anaerobic state like
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during the Archean period the lack of
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oxygen killed off most species of
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amphibians reptiles and insects life
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managed to continue evolving but faced
42:24
another big challenge
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[Music]
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untouched by the evolutionary changes on
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the Earth’s surface anaerobic
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microorganisms had been thriving in
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oxygen-poor underground environments the
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new oxygen-poor surface environment
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allowed them to re-emerge on land and in
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oceans their native habitat expanded
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across the globe as oxygen levels rose
43:02
again these microorganisms evolved to
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adapt to the new environmental
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conditions setting the stage for another
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phase of evolution
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the emergence of new creatures that
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would evolve into humans was close at
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hand
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you
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[Music]
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[Music]
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on the supercontinent Pangea
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mammals and reptiles appeared and
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started evolving under a warm climate
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[Music]
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while reptiles diversified into many
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varieties mammals remained nocturnal rat
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sized animals the mammals were in the
44:18
shadows
44:21
[Music]
44:31
with the appearance of dinosaurs
44:33
reptiles entered for Golden Age
44:37
[Music]
44:40
dinosaurs prevailed against many other
44:43
animal species and won the struggle for
44:46
survival
44:47
[Music]
44:51
high-radiation magma is produced when a
44:54
continent is split apart and this is
44:57
where stem evolution occurs due to
44:59
induced mutation dinosaurs were at the
45:03
pinnacle of their ecosystems
45:05
[Music]
45:15
[Music]
45:20
the pieces of northern Pangaea that had
45:23
split later rejoined this caused crown
45:29
evolution
45:33
amalgamation of continents brings the
45:36
hybridization of life and new species
45:41
spread out to other continents
45:44
[Music]
46:01
[Music]
46:03
dinosaurs flourished all over the world
46:13
in the plant world angiosperms with
46:17
advanced reproductive capacities
46:19
appeared
46:24
angiosperms utilize animals to help with
46:26
pollination and thus flourished on the
46:32
other hand the habitat of gymnosperms
46:34
was reduced primates the ancestors of
46:50
humans appeared at the rift of the
46:52
Gondwana super continent via stem
46:56
evolution new species appeared among the
46:59
rodents such as rats
47:02
[Music]
47:08
with time Gondwana split into South
47:12
America and Africa after South America
47:17
was isolated the primates there evolved
47:20
into the new world monkeys
47:22
[Music]
47:26
on the African continent the primates
47:28
evolved into the old-world monkeys after
47:32
the Indian subcontinent
47:34
split off from Antarctica primates on
47:37
this continent evolved into the lorises
47:40
primates evolved independently on each
47:43
continent and in this way many species
47:47
of primate appeared
47:49
[Music]
47:52
a large-scale Pacific super-plume pushed
47:59
the Pacific plate up and raised the sea
48:02
level lowlands fell below sea level and
48:07
the total land area decreased
48:12
rising sea-levels segmented the
48:14
continent providing isolated
48:16
environments for individualized
48:18
morphological evolution
48:20
[Music]
48:26
a universe scale event had changed
48:30
Earth’s surface environment the solar
48:34
system collided with a Dark Nebula the
48:38
earth was entirely covered by clouds
48:47
global cooling progressed catastrophic
48:50
Li damaging ecosystems
49:05
you
49:08
finally a meteorite ten kilometers
49:11
across fell on the Yucatan Peninsula
49:17
this event was the final trigger to
49:20
cause the mass extinction of dinosaurs
49:22
the fate of the Earth’s life is deeply
49:29
connected to the events in the universe
49:39
universe scale events can cause global
49:43
cooling and mass extinctions
49:47
[Music]
49:51
moreover galactic cosmic rays directly
49:55
affect the DNA that carries the
49:57
blueprints of life
50:00
cosmic rays cause mutations which
50:02
promote evolution
50:06
all aspects of life on the earth are
50:09
thus influenced by universe scale events
50:20
finally the dinosaurs that had
50:23
flourished went extinct
50:39
[Music]
50:53
along the African Rift Valley explosive
50:57
volcanic activity continued and peculiar
51:01
magma containing abundant radioactive
51:04
elements erupted old world monkeys a new
51:07
clade of primates appeared there they
51:12
are thought to be our remote ancestors
51:16
[Music]
51:28
about 4.5 billion years have passed
51:31
since the birth of the earth
51:35
large fluctuations in terrestrial
51:37
environments have occurred repeatedly a
51:40
never-ending cycle of life and death
51:49
finally human beings appeared this was
51:55
the onset of the humans Oh Akhil
52:01
humans have a unique set of genetic
52:05
regions called human accelerated regions
52:07
or har s and these regions differentiate
52:11
humans from other animals humans
52:14
developed enlarged brains that enable
52:16
them to gain language capabilities they
52:19
also gained the abilities to think to be
52:21
conscious to remember and to imagine
52:27
the brain volume of human beings has
52:30
discontinuously increased in three
52:32
stages the growth of brain volume seems
52:36
to be synchronized with large-scale
52:38
volcanic eruptions this indicates that
52:43
the increase in brain volume is caused
52:45
by stem evolution driven by high our
52:48
magma
52:49
[Music]
53:02
about 1 million two hundred thousand
53:04
years ago humans started moving out of
53:07
the African continent the last common
53:10
female ancestor who left the African
53:12
continent 200,000 years ago is called
53:15
mitochondrial Eve descendants of
53:20
mitochondrial Eve entered North America
53:23
and Central America fifteen thousand
53:25
years ago ten thousand years ago further
53:28
descendents reached the southern tip of
53:30
South America they had spread all over
53:33
the world since then an epical advance
53:36
of human civilization has taken place
53:41
[Music]
53:45
humans invented agriculture and
53:47
livestock production with these methods
53:49
a stable food supply became possible
53:52
human populations increased rapidly
53:56
[Music]
54:01
various occupational specializations
54:04
arose people began to barter and trade
54:06
to enable effective bartering cities
54:12
formed
54:15
with time small cities developed into
54:18
small city states with currencies
54:20
economies laws courts and police finally
54:27
the four great civilizations of the
54:29
world appeared along large rivers where
54:31
food productivity is higher than in
54:33
other regions conflicts in fighting over
54:41
territory occurred between civilizations
54:43
[Music]
54:47
to avoid fighting religions spread to
54:51
replace governance by royal families
54:53
entrenched through inheritance with time
54:57
national leaders came to be elected by
55:00
voters modern democratic nations
55:02
appeared democracy is a social form that
55:06
grants freedom equality and basic human
55:09
rights the Industrial Revolution began
55:16
in Great Britain after the Principia by
55:18
Isaac Newton was published
55:23
new technologies established or applied
55:25
based on scientific knowledge
55:27
dramatically changed human society the
55:33
invention of the steam locomotive
55:35
enabled transportation of goods by
55:37
railway the invention of cars and
55:43
airplanes enabled us to travel long
55:45
distances easily
55:49
[Music]
55:52
human society entered the age of
55:55
never-before-seen abundance
55:58
[Music]
56:04
however war occurred incessantly
56:09
sometimes irreversible tragedy was
56:12
caused by the misapplication of
56:14
scientific knowledge
56:24
the information revolution arose
56:27
following the invention of computers it
56:30
enabled human beings to explore the
56:32
universe as was symbolized by the Apollo
56:35
program and the invention of the
56:41
internet led to a new era in which
56:44
people across the world can connect with
56:46
each other in an instant
56:48
[Music]
56:53
out of contrition over past Wars the
56:58
birth of a unified world nation is
57:00
coming to be realized in 1993 the EU was
57:05
formed as a unified state in Europe
57:08
where Wars had recurred most frequently
57:13
in other areas similar Federation’s have
57:17
been emerging bringing us closer to the
57:19
birth of a unified world nation
57:23
[Music]
57:28
within the scope of Earth’s history the
57:31
human azoic era is very short however it
57:36
is humans entire history unfolding
57:39
within the context of the Earth’s
57:40
history
57:42
biologically human beings are just one
57:44
species of animal
57:47
however we are essentially different
57:50
from other animals because of our
57:52
evolved brains
57:53
[Music]
57:56
what else lies ahead for human beings
58:00
[Music]
58:04
you
58:07
[Music]
58:15
[Music]
58:22
human activities have been dependent on
58:25
fossil fuel fossil fuel was produced and
58:29
accumulated through Earth’s history over
58:31
billions of years we are now using up
58:36
these fuels at a furious pace the amount
58:41
of fossil fuel remaining is expected to
58:43
decrease sharply after 2020
58:46
it was once assumed that fossil fuel
58:49
would one out by 2100 however due to the
58:53
shale gas revolution this depletion will
58:56
be delayed 100 years progress in medical
59:00
technology and the intake of nutritious
59:03
meals has caused explosive population
59:06
growth as a result serious food
59:10
shortages will occur around 2020 these
59:14
will mark the beginning of the era of 3
59:16
billion refugees however the world’s
59:22
population is expected to decrease to 5
59:25
billion by 2100 after peaking at 10
59:28
billion in 2050 until 2050 the
59:33
increasing population will continue to
59:36
cause serious environmental
59:38
contamination numerous global challenges
59:43
will amplify the anxiety within human
59:45
societies what does the future of human
59:50
beings hold
59:56
[Music]
59:59
in the field of science innovative
60:02
technologies will be developed at an
60:04
accelerated pace humans will build a
60:11
space base on the moon to prepare for
60:14
exploration of our solar systems planets
60:19
artificially intelligent robots will be
60:21
involved in space exploration assisting
60:24
humans in their tasks in the near future
60:28
self-replicating robots will appear and
60:30
will evolve beyond humans limits
60:37
these artificial life-forms will
60:40
gradually travel out into the galaxy
60:43
moreover new technology enabling us to
60:47
go into different dimensions will be
60:49
developed humans must become able to
60:53
recognize the world beyond space and
60:55
time eventually the role of human beings
61:01
will be finished
61:06
that will be the end of the human is
61:09
Owen era
61:14
this scenario may be the inevitable
61:17
result of the strategy of life’s
61:19
evolution because in the future the
61:23
earth will face more upheavals than ever
61:25
before in its history centering on Asia
61:40
all continents will gather to form the
61:43
supercontinent Amasia
61:49
[Music]
61:53
plants consume atmospheric co2 to fix
61:57
carbon in their bodies dead plants made
62:01
of fixed carbon are covered by sediment
62:03
this process plays a role in reducing
62:06
atmospheric co2 the appearance of the
62:11
supercontinent Amasia will lead to an
62:14
increase in the land area that can fix
62:16
carbon more plants on a larger
62:18
supercontinent reduce more atmospheric
62:21
co2 the amount of co2 will decrease to
62:25
one tenth of the present level the c4
62:31
plants requiring higher concentrations
62:34
of co2 will go extinct as a result other
62:39
animals that rely on the c4 plants for
62:42
food will be affected seawater has been
62:47
decreasing for the past 600 million
62:49
years
62:50
as it has been transported into the
62:52
mantle in the form of hydras minerals
62:54
finally mid-oceanic ridges formed
62:58
summits above the seawater
63:01
water cannot be taken into the crust as
63:04
a lubricant anymore and plate tectonics
63:07
is terminated
63:12
this is the fate of a cooling planet
63:21
volcanic activity along these subduction
63:24
zone stops upheaval of the mountains
63:28
stops the earth suffers severe
63:31
environmental changes due to erosion
63:33
[Music]
63:37
subducted cold plates do not go down to
63:39
the bottom of the mantle the outer core
63:43
is not cooled down anymore and the
63:45
geomagnetic field disappears
63:47
[Music]
63:52
Earth’s atmosphere is removed by the
63:54
solar wind
63:58
at this point in time large
64:01
multicellular animals living in the
64:03
surface environment go extinct when the
64:10
ocean disappears animals that survived
64:13
in the ocean will also die
64:15
[Music]
64:16
finally all the Earth’s life disappears
64:22
the heating up of the solar surface
64:25
increases the Earth’s surface
64:27
temperature to 500 degrees Celsius the
64:31
earth becomes a Venus like planet
64:40
the andromeda galaxy collides with our
64:43
Milky Way galaxy because of this
64:47
collision the birth rate of stars
64:49
increases with time those stars undergo
64:54
supernova explosions intense galactic
64:58
cosmic rays rain on the earth
65:08
the expanding Sun will swallow the earth
65:15
this is the day when the planet Earth
65:18
that gave birth to life will disappear
65:20
from the universe
65:27
by that time the Earth’s life will have
65:30
reached other galaxies as
65:33
self-replicating artificial life in a
65:36
different form
65:37
[Music]

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