OpenBCI is an open source brain-computer interface. The OpenBCI was developed by Joel Murphy and Conor Russomanno, and crowd-funded by a successful Kickstarter campaign.
The OpenBCI can be used to measure and record electrical activity produced in the brain (EEG), muscles (EMG), and heart (EKG), and is compatible with standard EEG electrodes. The OpenBCI can be used with its own display and processing software, or it can be integrated with other open-source EEG software suites (from Wikipedia).
A video about Ray Kurzweil: http://hot.ynet.co.il/home/0,7340,L-11605-96884,00.html