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[Music]
00:16
more than 4.5 billion years ago the
00:19
Milky Way galaxy collided with a nearby
00:22
dwarf galaxy this encounter hastened the
00:25
formation of stars our solar system is a
00:30
part of the Milky Way galaxy within the
00:37
solar system material circulation had
00:39
been progressing
00:42
[Music]
00:48
the water component from the outer
00:50
region evaporated to make materials try
00:55
[Music]
00:59
through this process particles were
01:02
zonally distributed depending on their
01:04
water content the bipolar flow stopped
01:09
and with it material circulation some
01:14
regions around the Sun with high
01:17
particle density appeared within these
01:22
regions collisions frequently occurred
01:24
small particles gradually grew to become
01:27
planetesimals
01:34
planetesimals continued colliding with
01:36
smaller particles and other
01:38
planetesimals eventually growing to
01:41
planets such as the earth
01:42
[Music]
01:53
[Music]
02:01
a number of planets were moving in the
02:04
same orbit
02:04
[Music]
02:08
the early Earth collided with a smaller
02:11
mars-sized planet
02:27
[Music]
02:33
debris from this impact eventually came
02:36
to form our moon
02:37
[Music]
02:43
the earth-moon system as we know it
02:46
today was in place
02:48
[Music]
03:10
the early dry earth had neither an
03:14
atmosphere nor an ocean countless
03:18
planetesimals and icy planets of barded
03:22
the earth over a period of 200 million
03:26
years
03:27
an ocean atmosphere system is being
03:30
formed from carbon hydrogen oxygen and
03:33
nitrogen contained in planetesimals at
03:39
that time the ocean was still toxic with
03:42
high salinity and an overabundance of
03:45
heavy metals it was too toxic to support
03:50
life
03:58
[Music]
04:00
asteroids that reached a diameter of
04:03
1,000 kilometers
04:05
flew into the earth on impact both the
04:11
crust and asteroids became plasma in an
04:15
instant the surface was covered with
04:19
magma in the center of the crater a
04:23
basaltic central cone formed this
04:29
creates an up flow in the mantle as the
04:34
magma cooled and solidified a basaltic
04:37
crust thinner than the continental crust
04:39
formed this is called oceanic crust
04:44
[Music]
04:49
surface water flowed into the giant
04:52
crater forming small puddles that turned
04:55
into one large ocean the subsequent
05:05
rising mantle created a breach in the
05:08
oceanic crust and formed a ridge
05:15
uplift of the plate by mantle convection
05:18
caused horizontal slippage due to the
05:21
weight of the plate this is plate
05:25
tectonics in action
05:29
[Music]
05:37
the oceanic plate subducting under the
05:40
lighter continental plate
05:53
weathered sediments neutralized the
05:56
ultra acidic ocean
06:05
heavy metals settled out and became
06:08
fixed as deposits at the mid-oceanic
06:11
ridge these deposits were transported
06:15
through plate tectonics into the deep
06:18
mantle gradually the ocean became a
06:29
habitable environment
06:36
since 4.2 billion years ago a liquid
06:40
core has formed in the center of the
06:42
earth convection within the liquid core
06:45
created a strong magnetic field
06:48
surrounding the earth this geomagnetic
06:52
field shields the Earth’s surface from
06:55
solar winds and cosmic rays the Earth’s
06:59
surface was nearing readiness for life
07:10
[Music]
07:19
the early Earth when the atmosphere
07:21
prevented sunlight from reaching the
07:23
surface primitive life was about to
07:28
emerge underground in the cave of a
07:31
geyser
07:35
[Music]
07:44
uranium ore emitted large amounts of
07:46
radiation creating a diverse range of
07:49
materials and eventually producing the
07:52
early building blocks of life water
08:02
boiled and rose up to the surface and
08:05
the surface water flowed back down into
08:07
the natural nuclear reactor the
08:11
temperature of the geyser water remained
08:13
below 100 degrees
08:15
protecting the newly formed biomolecules
08:18
the underground environment was
08:20
reductive while the surface environment
08:23
oxidizing these conditions were
08:25
necessary to synthesize biomolecules
08:29
[Music]
08:32
in the earth hidden eeeh tidal forces
08:35
were much more pronounced than they are
08:37
today
08:40
even Lakes had significant urban flow of
08:44
water creating wet and dry cycles these
08:48
wet and dry cycles were one of the most
08:51
crucial factors in producing the
08:53
building blocks of life
08:56
[Music]
09:10
fatty acids came together encasing the
09:13
proto life molecules
09:33
polymerization progressed under the wet
09:35
and dry cycles eventually protein like
09:39
basic materials that could act as
09:42
catalysts were produced these molecules
09:50
circulated between the geyser cave and
09:52
the surface environment the interactions
09:55
of these materials led to more complex
09:57
biomolecules proto RNA combined with
10:10
enzyme like basic materials and evolved
10:13
into ribozymes which had the ability to
10:17
replicate themselves
10:20
this laid the groundwork for life to
10:24
reproduce finally these molecules were
10:32
enclosed within lipid membranes forming
10:35
primitive proto cellular life
10:38
[Music]
10:52
this was the beginning of life
10:59
[Music]
11:15
[Music]
11:19
the Earth’s plate tectonics which had
11:22
begun with the creation of its ocean
11:24
eventually destroyed its primordial
11:26
continent and subsumed it to the deep
11:29
mantle by four billion years ago the
11:36
mother continent had disappeared leaving
11:38
life on the margins of a fragmented
11:40
landmass
11:44
[Music]
11:51
inside the earth a dramatic change was
11:55
about to begin
12:01
[Music]
12:04
the subducted primordial continent
12:06
descended toward the core-mantle
12:08
boundary
12:15
the wealth of radioactive elements in
12:17
the primordial continent caused the
12:19
uppermost part of the core to melt
12:30
by 4.2 billion years ago the
12:33
newly-created liquid outer core was
12:35
strengthening the Earth’s magnetic field
12:38
protecting the surface environment
12:39
against solar winds and cosmic rays as a
12:47
result life could exist on the surface
12:50
environment
12:52
[Music]
13:02
the supply of energy and nutrients
13:05
through material circulation is
13:06
necessary for life the essential
13:11
mechanism to maintain life is an endless
13:14
flow of electrons the first pro to life
13:19
couldn’t survive very far from the
13:21
nuclear geyser due to insufficient
13:23
energy
13:34
mutations however allowed life to evolve
13:38
[Music]
13:41
the more resilient life-forms were able
13:44
to adapt and survive in harsh
13:46
environments
13:50
[Music]
13:54
this second stage of proto life evolved
13:57
to make use of the sunlight available on
14:00
the Earth’s surface
14:01
[Music]
14:07
they developed metabolism that converted
14:10
light energy into electrochemical energy
14:18
moreover they used sugars to store
14:21
energy for the sunless night hours
14:28
the source of energy for life on earth
14:31
shifted from nuclear geysers to the Sun
14:35
[Music]
14:56
around 4.1 billion years ago the ocean
15:00
was still extremely toxic killing off
15:03
most of the proto life-forms within it
15:08
nevertheless some proto life-forms
15:11
survived the extreme environment
15:14
[Music]
15:25
they developed protective mechanisms to
15:28
prevent the metallic ions in the ocean
15:30
water from entering their protocells
15:33
[Music]
15:40
this proto life began coalescing into
15:43
larger and more complex forms
15:46
[Music]
15:51
modern life-forms use only twenty kinds
15:54
of amino acids this means our ancestors
15:59
that used the same amino acids were the
16:01
ones that survived the mass extinction
16:03
[Music]
16:06
evolution walks a perilous tightrope
16:08
between continuing and ending unstable
16:13
RNA evolved through ionizing radiation
16:16
into more durable DNA making it possible
16:20
to reliably pass information across
16:22
generations
16:25
and the third stage of proto life was
16:29
born this was the beginning of
16:35
prokaryotic organisms the ancestors of
16:38
today’s archaea and bacteria
16:49
[Music]
17:01
oxygen when unbound to any other
17:04
material can be toxic to life because
17:07
oxygen destroys the reductive life body
17:09
[Music]
17:19
therefore the first photosynthetic
17:22
organisms would have been anaerobic
17:24
microbes which produced no oxygen life
17:36
however adapted taking advantage of
17:39
oxygen as a valuable source of
17:46
additional energy this development
17:57
resulted in the appearance of
17:59
cyanobacteria
18:09
cyanobacteria produced oxygen which
18:12
crystallized into felsic iron-bearing
18:14
oxide reducing the iron content of the
18:17
ocean still the ocean was five times as
18:21
saline as it is today as the Earth’s
18:35
interior cooled old slabs of the
18:39
primordial crust resting at the bottom
18:42
of the upper mantle fell into the lower
18:44
mantle
19:01
meanwhile numerous mantle plumes
19:04
ascended from the lower mantle into the
19:06
upper mantle this phenomenon is known as
19:11
mantle overturn mantle plumes pushed the
19:15
basaltic crust upward generating
19:17
landmass
19:25
this created shallow marine environments
19:28
penetrated by sunlight which allowed the
19:31
cyanobacteria to flourish
19:48
the oxygen produced by the cyanobacteria
19:51
gradually altered the Earth’s atmosphere
19:54
[Music]
19:58
on the ocean floor ferric and ferrous
20:02
iron were accumulating in the form of
20:05
hematite and magnetite creating a
20:07
massive banded iron formation by 2.5
20:12
billion years ago the remaining banded
20:14
iron formation was a few kilometers
20:17
thick
20:18
this rapid decrease in iron content
20:21
changed the color of the ocean to a
20:24
familiar blue life began to change the
20:28
surface environment such is the
20:31
coevolution of the earth and its
20:33
inhabitants
20:35
this was an important step in life on
20:38
Earth’s long journey toward civilization
20:44
a collision between the Milky Way and a
21:05
nearby dwarf galaxy produced countless
21:08
glowing stars within a few thousand
21:14
years some of these stars ended in
21:17
supernova explosions a myriad of cosmic
21:22
rays from the supernova deteriorated the
21:24
sun’s heliosphere and bombarded the
21:27
earth
21:31
[Music]
21:34
these cosmic rays help generate cloud
21:37
condensation nuclei which produced more
21:40
and more clouds until the earth was
21:42
completely blanketed with them the thick
21:46
cloud cover prevented sunlight from
21:48
reaching the surface of the earth the
21:56
earth underwent a global glaciation
21:58
event known as the snowball earth this
22:02
caused another global mass extinction
22:06
[Music]
22:18
but once again some life survived yet
22:22
another difficult period beneath the ice
22:24
sheet tiny life was protected by the
22:32
Earth’s massive circulating system
22:36
[Music]
22:40
and the earth is similarly held in place
22:43
by the solar system and the expansive
22:45
universe life is but one part of an
22:54
enormous system
23:00
[Music]
23:19
the prokaryotes survived the snowball
23:21
earth evolving into more complex life
23:24
such as endosymbiotic systems living
23:27
together inside cells they formed
23:33
mitochondria and chloroplasts which
23:36
allowed them to get more energy from
23:37
oxygen
23:43
[Music]
23:52
a single prokaryote body could contain
23:55
thousands of mitochondria
23:57
[Music]
24:02
a nuclear membrane formed protecting DNA
24:07
from the oxygen dense ocean water
24:11
[Music]
24:17
DNA strands grew longer retaining ever
24:20
more genetic information life evolved
24:26
into more diverse and complex organisms
24:34
at long last the eukaryotes appeared the
24:41
eukaryotes grew a million times larger
24:44
than the prokaryotes
24:49
in theory everything inevitably falls
24:52
into disorder
24:55
[Music]
24:57
and yet life is orderly and increasingly
25:01
complex life seems to continue evolving
25:09
undeterred by universal entropy
25:13
[Music]
25:25
[Music]
25:29
plate tectonics caused small developing
25:32
continents to assemble into a single
25:35
supercontinent called nuna as nuna
25:40
formed its burgeoning landmass provided
25:43
cyanobacteria with an expanding habitat
25:47
in its lakes rivers wetlands and
25:50
estuaries cyanobacteria produces free
26:00
oxygen through photosynthesis at that
26:05
time however most of the free oxygen
26:07
produced was consumed in decomposing
26:10
dead cyanobacteria so very little free
26:14
oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere on
26:16
land however dead cyanobacteria got
26:21
buried under sediments
26:25
so oxygen that would have broken down
26:28
their bodies instead ended up in the
26:31
atmosphere the presence of a large
26:34
landmass helped increase the amount of
26:37
oxygen in the atmosphere as the total
26:40
land area on the surface of the earth
26:42
increased so too did atmospheric oxygen
26:45
levels dramatically
26:47
[Music]
26:52
over time the nuna supercontinent broke
26:56
up into smaller continents
27:02
but once again plate techtonics
27:05
reassembled a supercontinent this one
27:07
called Rodinia in equator region slabs
27:11
of oceanic plates subducted under
27:13
continental plates gradually accumulated
27:15
in the mantle transition zone eventually
27:18
these slabs fell down into the core the
27:21
slabs cooled the outer core changing the
27:24
flow of electricity within as a result
27:28
the cores dipole magnetic fields
27:31
transformed into a weaker quadrupole
27:33
magnetic field the Milky Way galaxy
27:42
collided with a dwarf galaxy and
27:45
underwent to transition into starburst
27:47
conditions over time these newly
27:51
produced stars ended in supernova
27:53
explosions bombarding the earth with
27:56
cosmic rays the earth with its weak
28:01
quadrupole magnetic field was heavily
28:04
affected clouds covered the entire earth
28:07
and ice covered its surface a series of
28:12
supernova explosions occurred long
28:16
periods of extreme heat were punctuated
28:18
by shorter periods of extreme cold in
28:22
the extremely cold periods oxygen in the
28:26
atmosphere fell to Archaean Eon levels
28:29
causing mass extinctions
28:32
these mass extinctions however created
28:35
great opportunities for life to evolve
28:38
into something completely new repeated
28:44
in fluxes of cosmic rays and drastic
28:46
fluctuations in oxygen levels these
28:50
environmental changes caused genetic
28:53
mutations that accelerated the
28:55
appearance of new species
28:57
[Music]
29:05
the starburst period ended and the
29:08
Earth’s core reverted to a stronger
29:10
dipole magnetic field ongoing
29:13
photosynthesis returned the oxygen in
29:16
the atmosphere to previous levels
29:19
meanwhile the Inner Earth was gradually
29:23
cooling down when the Inner Earth is hot
29:26
enough the components of water trapped
29:30
in minerals in the oceanic plates are
29:32
released to the surface environment and
29:35
the sea water level is unaffected
29:40
[Music]
29:42
however once the mantle temperature
29:45
drops below 650 degrees Celsius minerals
29:50
carry these water components down into
29:53
the upper mantle
29:59
meanwhile on the surface deprived of the
30:02
components of water sea levels gradually
30:05
decrease this is known as the leaking
30:10
earth phenomena which is inevitable on a
30:13
cooling planet this leaking effect moved
30:19
3% of all sea water into the deeper
30:23
mantle sea level dropped by 600 metres
30:26
as a result surface land areas grew as
30:30
did continental shelf areas receiving
30:32
sunlight a habitat for future life on
30:36
earth was being created rivers carried
30:45
nutrients from the inlands down to the
30:47
continental shelves and the additional
30:50
landmass significantly accelerated the
30:52
build-up of oxygen in the atmosphere
30:56
these processes set the stage for an
30:59
explosive evolution of life-forms
31:02
[Music]
31:16
[Music]
31:23
extreme climate changes continued
31:25
putting life on a path to new
31:28
evolutional stages for survival life
31:32
evolved with prokaryotes and eukaryotes
31:34
living together as ever larger symbiotic
31:38
organisms compensating for each other’s
31:40
shortcomings and thriving as a whole
31:43
this greatly expanded the possibilities
31:46
for forms of life
31:49
[Music]
31:53
life forms grew to 1 million times the
31:56
size of eukaryotes and 1 trillion times
31:59
the size of prokaryotes the appearance
32:03
of multicellular life was a critical
32:06
leap for evolution
32:07
[Music]
32:21
another glaciation period came and life
32:24
suffered a mass extinction with time
32:28
this glaciation also passed and the
32:30
global climate gradually warmed
32:33
phosphorus and other materials essential
32:36
for life circulated through the climate
32:38
system and accumulated in the oceans the
32:41
animals of the Ediacaran period appeared
32:44
at this time dick and Sonia are iconic
32:50
among the Ediacaran fauna
32:52
some grew to over 1 metre in length they
32:55
were soft bodied creatures with no shell
32:57
or skeleton
32:59
[Music]
33:05
they probably lived in warm shallow
33:07
marine environments around the Rodinia
33:10
supercontinent
33:11
[Music]
33:20
the supply of nutrients from the land
33:22
was ever-increasing as was atmospheric
33:25
oxygen the amount of ferrous iron in the
33:29
oceans increased the ferrous iron
33:31
oxidized once again creating large bands
33:34
of iron phosphorus and calcium levels in
33:38
the ocean increased life evolved to use
33:41
these elements becoming animals with
33:43
bones and shells for example the calcium
33:49
helped protect micro dikteon from other
33:51
animals their bodies used calcium to
33:55
form a covering of hard scales life
34:00
evolves to survive making use of the
34:03
elements in its environment and the
34:07
Earth’s environment alters the shapes of
34:10
life
34:11
[Music]
34:20
the earth entered another period of
34:23
climactic instability the earth
34:25
alternated between periods of extreme
34:27
heat and extreme cold for tens of
34:30
millions of years these severe changes
34:35
killed off the Ediacaran fauna
34:40
nevertheless new species were about to
34:43
appear radiation from inside the earth
34:53
plays a significant role in the
34:55
evolution of life
34:57
a continental rift is a place where a
35:01
continent breaks open to expose erupting
35:04
magma and radioactive elements radiation
35:08
hastens the creation of new species and
35:10
new branches in the Tree of Life
35:17
this is stem evolution creating new
35:21
species at continental rifts
35:28
life evolved separately on each small
35:31
continent when small continents
35:39
recombined their life forms crossbred
35:46
[Music]
35:49
different crossbreeding ‘he’s created
35:51
new forms of life variation thrived
35:56
this is crown evolution continental
36:02
collisions created more diverse surface
36:04
environments bays and gulfs on large
36:07
continents were especially well supplied
36:10
with nutrients from upstream making use
36:14
of these nutrients Cambrian era
36:16
life-forms diversified much more quickly
36:20
[Music]
36:22
the Cambrian explosion created some 35
36:26
new phyla
36:27
these phyla became the foundation for
36:30
the types of plants and animals we see
36:32
today
36:33
[Music]
36:39
there are three main ways that life
36:42
evolved mass extinctions that eradicated
36:46
many species stem evolution that
36:52
hastened genetic mutations when
36:53
continents broke apart and crown
36:57
evolution that hastened bio
36:59
diversification when continents collided
37:03
so the evolution of life is inextricably
37:07
linked to environmental changes due to
37:10
universal factors and continents
37:12
assembling together and breaking apart
37:16
[Music]
37:31
the ocean was more than five times as
37:34
saline as it is today 600 million years
37:38
ago the ocean gradually became less
37:40
salty salt from seawater was relocated
37:46
to the land in the form of rock salt
37:50
decreasing sea levels made this possible
37:52
through more exposed land even if
37:56
seawater rose again high enough to
37:58
reclaim the rock salt most of it had
38:02
become inaccessible encased in sediments
38:07
the decrease in seawater salinity made
38:10
the ocean more hospitable to diverse
38:12
life-forms estuaries and open seas
38:15
welcomed new life with increasing
38:20
atmospheric oxygen levels an ozone layer
38:23
formed in the Earth’s upper atmosphere
38:25
the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet
38:28
radiation from the Sun the land was
38:31
becoming a more habitable environment
38:40
[Music]
38:42
Algie was the first life-form to
38:45
transition out of the water onto the
38:48
challenging land environment
38:51
this is why algae evolved before animals
38:54
did
38:58
when insects appeared they co-evolved
39:01
together with plants
39:14
appearing during the Cambrian explosion
39:17
fish were the first of the vertebrates
39:20
animals with backbones fish are the
39:24
oldest vertebrate ancestors of us humans
39:37
as fish continued to evolve xeo Steger
39:41
appeared the ancestor of amphibians
39:47
[Music]
39:56
plants flourished producing free oxygen
39:59
through photosynthesis providing the
40:03
atmosphere with 1.5 times as much oxygen
40:06
as it has today
40:10
long after the remains of these plants
40:13
would become sedimentary coal that coal
40:17
would help fuel the remarkable
40:19
breakthroughs for human civilization
40:21
that started with the Industrial
40:23
Revolution
40:29
[Music]
40:43
next vertebrates equipped with lungs
40:46
appeared and made their way onto land
40:58
[Music]
41:00
the tree of life evolved branching from
41:04
fish to amphibians to reptiles and then
41:07
dinosaurs and mammals and eventually to
41:12
humans this guy hasn’t found out about
41:17
all that just yet
41:22
[Music]
41:29
[Music]
41:37
the solar system collided with the Dark
41:39
Nebula as the solar system passed
41:42
through the nebula the earth was
41:44
bombarded with cosmic rays
41:55
the earth entered yet another frozen age
42:00
plants were affected first dramatically
42:03
reducing the oxygen they supplied to the
42:05
atmosphere the surface environment
42:07
reverted to an anaerobic state like
42:11
during the Archean period the lack of
42:13
oxygen killed off most species of
42:16
amphibians reptiles and insects life
42:20
managed to continue evolving but faced
42:24
another big challenge
42:27
[Music]
42:39
untouched by the evolutionary changes on
42:42
the Earth’s surface anaerobic
42:44
microorganisms had been thriving in
42:46
oxygen-poor underground environments the
42:50
new oxygen-poor surface environment
42:52
allowed them to re-emerge on land and in
42:55
oceans their native habitat expanded
42:59
across the globe as oxygen levels rose
43:02
again these microorganisms evolved to
43:05
adapt to the new environmental
43:07
conditions setting the stage for another
43:11
phase of evolution
43:16
the emergence of new creatures that
43:19
would evolve into humans was close at
43:22
hand
43:31
you
43:36
[Music]
43:44
[Music]
43:48
on the supercontinent Pangea
43:53
mammals and reptiles appeared and
43:56
started evolving under a warm climate
44:01
[Music]
44:05
while reptiles diversified into many
44:08
varieties mammals remained nocturnal rat
44:13
sized animals the mammals were in the
44:18
shadows
44:21
[Music]
44:31
with the appearance of dinosaurs
44:33
reptiles entered for Golden Age
44:37
[Music]
44:40
dinosaurs prevailed against many other
44:43
animal species and won the struggle for
44:46
survival
44:47
[Music]
44:51
high-radiation magma is produced when a
44:54
continent is split apart and this is
44:57
where stem evolution occurs due to
44:59
induced mutation dinosaurs were at the
45:03
pinnacle of their ecosystems
45:05
[Music]
45:15
[Music]
45:20
the pieces of northern Pangaea that had
45:23
split later rejoined this caused crown
45:29
evolution
45:33
amalgamation of continents brings the
45:36
hybridization of life and new species
45:41
spread out to other continents
45:44
[Music]
46:01
[Music]
46:03
dinosaurs flourished all over the world
46:13
in the plant world angiosperms with
46:17
advanced reproductive capacities
46:19
appeared
46:24
angiosperms utilize animals to help with
46:26
pollination and thus flourished on the
46:32
other hand the habitat of gymnosperms
46:34
was reduced primates the ancestors of
46:50
humans appeared at the rift of the
46:52
Gondwana super continent via stem
46:56
evolution new species appeared among the
46:59
rodents such as rats
47:02
[Music]
47:08
with time Gondwana split into South
47:12
America and Africa after South America
47:17
was isolated the primates there evolved
47:20
into the new world monkeys
47:22
[Music]
47:26
on the African continent the primates
47:28
evolved into the old-world monkeys after
47:32
the Indian subcontinent
47:34
split off from Antarctica primates on
47:37
this continent evolved into the lorises
47:40
primates evolved independently on each
47:43
continent and in this way many species
47:47
of primate appeared
47:49
[Music]
47:52
a large-scale Pacific super-plume pushed
47:59
the Pacific plate up and raised the sea
48:02
level lowlands fell below sea level and
48:07
the total land area decreased
48:12
rising sea-levels segmented the
48:14
continent providing isolated
48:16
environments for individualized
48:18
morphological evolution
48:20
[Music]
48:26
a universe scale event had changed
48:30
Earth’s surface environment the solar
48:34
system collided with a Dark Nebula the
48:38
earth was entirely covered by clouds
48:47
global cooling progressed catastrophic
48:50
Li damaging ecosystems
49:05
you
49:08
finally a meteorite ten kilometers
49:11
across fell on the Yucatan Peninsula
49:17
this event was the final trigger to
49:20
cause the mass extinction of dinosaurs
49:22
the fate of the Earth’s life is deeply
49:29
connected to the events in the universe
49:39
universe scale events can cause global
49:43
cooling and mass extinctions
49:47
[Music]
49:51
moreover galactic cosmic rays directly
49:55
affect the DNA that carries the
49:57
blueprints of life
50:00
cosmic rays cause mutations which
50:02
promote evolution
50:06
all aspects of life on the earth are
50:09
thus influenced by universe scale events
50:20
finally the dinosaurs that had
50:23
flourished went extinct
50:39
[Music]
50:53
along the African Rift Valley explosive
50:57
volcanic activity continued and peculiar
51:01
magma containing abundant radioactive
51:04
elements erupted old world monkeys a new
51:07
clade of primates appeared there they
51:12
are thought to be our remote ancestors
51:16
[Music]
51:28
about 4.5 billion years have passed
51:31
since the birth of the earth
51:35
large fluctuations in terrestrial
51:37
environments have occurred repeatedly a
51:40
never-ending cycle of life and death
51:49
finally human beings appeared this was
51:55
the onset of the humans Oh Akhil
52:01
humans have a unique set of genetic
52:05
regions called human accelerated regions
52:07
or har s and these regions differentiate
52:11
humans from other animals humans
52:14
developed enlarged brains that enable
52:16
them to gain language capabilities they
52:19
also gained the abilities to think to be
52:21
conscious to remember and to imagine
52:27
the brain volume of human beings has
52:30
discontinuously increased in three
52:32
stages the growth of brain volume seems
52:36
to be synchronized with large-scale
52:38
volcanic eruptions this indicates that
52:43
the increase in brain volume is caused
52:45
by stem evolution driven by high our
52:48
magma
52:49
[Music]
53:02
about 1 million two hundred thousand
53:04
years ago humans started moving out of
53:07
the African continent the last common
53:10
female ancestor who left the African
53:12
continent 200,000 years ago is called
53:15
mitochondrial Eve descendants of
53:20
mitochondrial Eve entered North America
53:23
and Central America fifteen thousand
53:25
years ago ten thousand years ago further
53:28
descendents reached the southern tip of
53:30
South America they had spread all over
53:33
the world since then an epical advance
53:36
of human civilization has taken place
53:41
[Music]
53:45
humans invented agriculture and
53:47
livestock production with these methods
53:49
a stable food supply became possible
53:52
human populations increased rapidly
53:56
[Music]
54:01
various occupational specializations
54:04
arose people began to barter and trade
54:06
to enable effective bartering cities
54:12
formed
54:15
with time small cities developed into
54:18
small city states with currencies
54:20
economies laws courts and police finally
54:27
the four great civilizations of the
54:29
world appeared along large rivers where
54:31
food productivity is higher than in
54:33
other regions conflicts in fighting over
54:41
territory occurred between civilizations
54:43
[Music]
54:47
to avoid fighting religions spread to
54:51
replace governance by royal families
54:53
entrenched through inheritance with time
54:57
national leaders came to be elected by
55:00
voters modern democratic nations
55:02
appeared democracy is a social form that
55:06
grants freedom equality and basic human
55:09
rights the Industrial Revolution began
55:16
in Great Britain after the Principia by
55:18
Isaac Newton was published
55:23
new technologies established or applied
55:25
based on scientific knowledge
55:27
dramatically changed human society the
55:33
invention of the steam locomotive
55:35
enabled transportation of goods by
55:37
railway the invention of cars and
55:43
airplanes enabled us to travel long
55:45
distances easily
55:49
[Music]
55:52
human society entered the age of
55:55
never-before-seen abundance
55:58
[Music]
56:04
however war occurred incessantly
56:09
sometimes irreversible tragedy was
56:12
caused by the misapplication of
56:14
scientific knowledge
56:24
the information revolution arose
56:27
following the invention of computers it
56:30
enabled human beings to explore the
56:32
universe as was symbolized by the Apollo
56:35
program and the invention of the
56:41
internet led to a new era in which
56:44
people across the world can connect with
56:46
each other in an instant
56:48
[Music]
56:53
out of contrition over past Wars the
56:58
birth of a unified world nation is
57:00
coming to be realized in 1993 the EU was
57:05
formed as a unified state in Europe
57:08
where Wars had recurred most frequently
57:13
in other areas similar Federation’s have
57:17
been emerging bringing us closer to the
57:19
birth of a unified world nation
57:23
[Music]
57:28
within the scope of Earth’s history the
57:31
human azoic era is very short however it
57:36
is humans entire history unfolding
57:39
within the context of the Earth’s
57:40
history
57:42
biologically human beings are just one
57:44
species of animal
57:47
however we are essentially different
57:50
from other animals because of our
57:52
evolved brains
57:53
[Music]
57:56
what else lies ahead for human beings
58:00
[Music]
58:04
you
58:07
[Music]
58:15
[Music]
58:22
human activities have been dependent on
58:25
fossil fuel fossil fuel was produced and
58:29
accumulated through Earth’s history over
58:31
billions of years we are now using up
58:36
these fuels at a furious pace the amount
58:41
of fossil fuel remaining is expected to
58:43
decrease sharply after 2020
58:46
it was once assumed that fossil fuel
58:49
would one out by 2100 however due to the
58:53
shale gas revolution this depletion will
58:56
be delayed 100 years progress in medical
59:00
technology and the intake of nutritious
59:03
meals has caused explosive population
59:06
growth as a result serious food
59:10
shortages will occur around 2020 these
59:14
will mark the beginning of the era of 3
59:16
billion refugees however the world’s
59:22
population is expected to decrease to 5
59:25
billion by 2100 after peaking at 10
59:28
billion in 2050 until 2050 the
59:33
increasing population will continue to
59:36
cause serious environmental
59:38
contamination numerous global challenges
59:43
will amplify the anxiety within human
59:45
societies what does the future of human
59:50
beings hold
59:56
[Music]
59:59
in the field of science innovative
60:02
technologies will be developed at an
60:04
accelerated pace humans will build a
60:11
space base on the moon to prepare for
60:14
exploration of our solar systems planets
60:19
artificially intelligent robots will be
60:21
involved in space exploration assisting
60:24
humans in their tasks in the near future
60:28
self-replicating robots will appear and
60:30
will evolve beyond humans limits
60:37
these artificial life-forms will
60:40
gradually travel out into the galaxy
60:43
moreover new technology enabling us to
60:47
go into different dimensions will be
60:49
developed humans must become able to
60:53
recognize the world beyond space and
60:55
time eventually the role of human beings
61:01
will be finished
61:06
that will be the end of the human is
61:09
Owen era
61:14
this scenario may be the inevitable
61:17
result of the strategy of life’s
61:19
evolution because in the future the
61:23
earth will face more upheavals than ever
61:25
before in its history centering on Asia
61:40
all continents will gather to form the
61:43
supercontinent Amasia
61:49
[Music]
61:53
plants consume atmospheric co2 to fix
61:57
carbon in their bodies dead plants made
62:01
of fixed carbon are covered by sediment
62:03
this process plays a role in reducing
62:06
atmospheric co2 the appearance of the
62:11
supercontinent Amasia will lead to an
62:14
increase in the land area that can fix
62:16
carbon more plants on a larger
62:18
supercontinent reduce more atmospheric
62:21
co2 the amount of co2 will decrease to
62:25
one tenth of the present level the c4
62:31
plants requiring higher concentrations
62:34
of co2 will go extinct as a result other
62:39
animals that rely on the c4 plants for
62:42
food will be affected seawater has been
62:47
decreasing for the past 600 million
62:49
years
62:50
as it has been transported into the
62:52
mantle in the form of hydras minerals
62:54
finally mid-oceanic ridges formed
62:58
summits above the seawater
63:01
water cannot be taken into the crust as
63:04
a lubricant anymore and plate tectonics
63:07
is terminated
63:12
this is the fate of a cooling planet
63:21
volcanic activity along these subduction
63:24
zone stops upheaval of the mountains
63:28
stops the earth suffers severe
63:31
environmental changes due to erosion
63:33
[Music]
63:37
subducted cold plates do not go down to
63:39
the bottom of the mantle the outer core
63:43
is not cooled down anymore and the
63:45
geomagnetic field disappears
63:47
[Music]
63:52
Earth’s atmosphere is removed by the
63:54
solar wind
63:58
at this point in time large
64:01
multicellular animals living in the
64:03
surface environment go extinct when the
64:10
ocean disappears animals that survived
64:13
in the ocean will also die
64:15
[Music]
64:16
finally all the Earth’s life disappears
64:22
the heating up of the solar surface
64:25
increases the Earth’s surface
64:27
temperature to 500 degrees Celsius the
64:31
earth becomes a Venus like planet
64:40
the andromeda galaxy collides with our
64:43
Milky Way galaxy because of this
64:47
collision the birth rate of stars
64:49
increases with time those stars undergo
64:54
supernova explosions intense galactic
64:58
cosmic rays rain on the earth
65:08
the expanding Sun will swallow the earth
65:15
this is the day when the planet Earth
65:18
that gave birth to life will disappear
65:20
from the universe
65:27
by that time the Earth’s life will have
65:30
reached other galaxies as
65:33
self-replicating artificial life in a
65:36
different form
65:37
[Music]

Raymond Kurzweil (/ˈkɜːrzwaɪl/ KURZ-wyle; born February 12, 1948) is an American inventor and futurist. He is involved in fields such as optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic keyboard instruments. He has written books on health, artificial intelligence (AI), transhumanism, the technological singularity, and futurism. Kurzweil is a public advocate for the futurist and transhumanist movements and gives public talks to share his optimistic outlook on life extension technologies and the future of nanotechnology, robotics, and biotechnology (Wikipedia).

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שלום לך,

 

בהמשך לכתיבת הדוקטורט וקבלת התואר, אנו מציעים לבוגרים שלנו לפרסם את עבודתם 

כספר בהוצאת אמזון בארץ ובעולם (באנגלית).

 

לצורך כך, התקשרנו עם חברה מובילה בארץ בתחום זה  והיא מוכנה לקחת על עצמה את ביצוע המשימה 

של הכנה ועריכה של עבודתך לאמזון, כולל פתיחת חשבון אישי, קורות חיים, יצירת ספר דיגיטלי וספר פיזי ( ראה דוגמאות מטה). 

 

עלות הפיכת עבודתך כספר לאמזון היא כ- 3,000-6,000 ש”ח + מע”מ. סכום זה, תלוי כמובן בטיב החומר שיוגש לחברה, 

רמתו כמו גם בדרישה שלך (כריכה קשה, קבלת מספר עותקים או שיווק נוסף לספר)

 

הסכום שיקבע ישולם על ידך ישירות לחברה הנ”ל.

 

אשמח לדעת האם זה מעניין אותך?

המשך שבוע טוב

עקיבא

שולח לך מספר דוגמאות עם לינק לאמזון של דף סופר ושל הספר שלו (אלה דוגמאות של ספרים שהוצאו על ידי

החברה שאנחנו מייצגים אבל אני מדגיש כי האנשים הללו לא למדו דרכנו לדוקטורט)

דר’ רעיה יואלי

דף סופר – https://www.amazon.com/Raya-Yoeli/e/B08ZDKRLHG

דף הספר – https://www.amazon.com/Own-Your-Story-Reinvent-professional-ebook/dp/B08Z8G3MXP

דר’ יוסי מערבי

דף סופר – https://www.amazon.com/Yossi-Maaravi/e/B07D3P8TTM

דף הספר – https://www.amazon.com/You-Deserve-Better-real-life-negotiations-ebook/dp/B07D7YL51M

דר’ עופר מרבך

דף סופר – https://www.amazon.de/-/en/Dr-Ofer-Marbach/e/B08WC6HVDH

דף הספר – https://www.amazon.de/-/en/Dr-Ofer-Marbach-ebook/dp/B08VJH36SN

דר’ תמר מילוא

דף סופר – https://www.amazon.com/Tamar-Milo-Ph-D/e/B07TTMCN7L

דף הספר – https://www.amazon.com/Succeeding-Succession-Family-Business-Control-ebook/dp/B07TTJN413

General info

Carry / Storage Case

Buy HERE

How to

  • Remote controller / Drone
    • Press twice the power button of the battery.
    • The second press should be longer.

Q & A

  • Can it take off without smartphone when using remote and drone only?
    • Yes, Turn on Drone, Turn on Remote controller, wait till there will be two white light at the remote, then take off.
  • If connection if lost does it returns home automatically?
    • Yes
  • If Remote and smartphone battery discharged and turned off, does it returns home automatically?
  • What is the maximum range?
    • City
    • Open space
    • From Home
    • Using range extender 
  • How long it remains at the same spot in Air with full charge battery?

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BDO - האקדמיה לפיננסים

  • דף בית
    • לימודי ייעוץ השקעות וניהול תיקים
    • עלות 11,000 ש”ח.
      • פרונטאלי
    • 9000 שח 
      • לימודים מרחוק בזום או שווה ערך.
    • פרטים אצל אופק בטלפון: 03-971-8802
    • יש מבחני הסמכה ע”י הרשות לניירות ערך ביוני ובדמצבר כל שנה.
    • הלימודים מתחילים בינואר וביולי באקדמיה לפיננסים.
    • המסלול הולך כך:
      • לימוד למסלול ייעוץ השקעות
      • לימוד קורסים
        • כלכלה
        • מימון
        • חשבונאות
        • אתיקה
        • מקצועית א
      • אח”כ מבחן ברשות לניירות ערך לכל מקצוע.
      • אח”כ התמחות חצי שנה בחברה או אצל עצמאי מסוים
        • המעסיק צריך לחתום על מסמך והוא צריך להיות בעל רישיון לייצוץ השקעות.
      • המשך מסלול הלימוד לניהול תיקים
        • לימוד קורסים
          • מקצובית ב
          • מבחן של הרשות
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        • חתימה של המעסיק
    • לבוגרי כלכלה, יש פטור מכלכלה, מימון, חשבונאות
    • עלות קורס לבוגרי כלכלה 4000 שח.